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crown What are Dental Crowns and Tooth Bridges ?
Both crowns and most bridges are fixed prosthetic devices. Unlike removable devices such as dentures, which you can take out and clean daily, crowns and bridges are cemented onto existing teeth or implants, and can only be removed by a dentist.

How do Crowns Work ?
A crown is used to entirely cover or "cap" a damaged tooth. Besides strengthening a damaged tooth, a crown can be used to improve its appearance, shape or alignment.
A crown can be recommended to :
- Replace a large filling when there isn't enough tooth remaining
- Protect a weak tooth from fracturing
- Restore a fractured tooth
- Attach a bridge
- Cover a dental implant
- Cover a discolored or poorly shaped tooth
- Cover a tooth that has had root canal treatment
Different types of crowns available :
- Full metal crown
- Metal ceramic crown
- Metal free crown (Zirconia, Lithium disilicate, etc)

How do Bridges Work (FPD) ?
A bridge may be recommended if you're missing one or more teeth. Gaps left by missing teeth eventually cause the remaining teeth to rotate or shift into the empty spaces, resulting in a bad bite. The imbalance caused by missing teeth can also lead to gum disease and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Bridges are cemented to the natural teeth or implants surrounding the empty space. These teeth, called abutments, serve as anchors (as in posts in a road bridge for eg.) for the bridge (FPD).

What Are Porcelain Veneers / Laminates ?
Porcelain veneers cover the front surface of one or more teeth with a thin shell of tooth-like material. Serving both a functional and aesthetic role, dental veneers protect the surface of damaged teeth while also reshaping and whitening your smile.
The list below explains several ways that porcelain veneers can give your smile a lift:
- Close gaps between teeth
- Severely stained teeth
- Repair chips or cracks
- Reshape distorted or misshapen teeth
- Lengthen short or uneven teeth
- Hide worn enamel
- Straighten slightly crooked or overlapping teeth
- Cover slightly dark or discolored teeth with a whiter surface
offering a convenient all-in-one solution to all your problems.
Giving you a youthful, confident smile.


What are Dental Implants?
Dental implants are Titanium posts that are surgically implanted directly into the jawbone. Once the surrounding bone has healed (3 to 6mon) depending on case severity, a second stage surgery is needed to connect a post (abutment) to the original implant.
Finally, an artificial tooth (or teeth) / crown is attached to the abutment individually, or grouped on a bridge or denture. It can be a single implant, multiple implants, implant retained FPDs, implant supported complete dentures.

Benefits of Implants :
- More natural appaerance. Excellent aesthetics (looks) & phonetics (speech).
- Helps maintain the bone volume & bulk keeping face look more younger as the implant is inserted directly onto the bone.
- Implants fuse to jawbone, providing stable support for artificial teeth.
Crowns, Bridges & Dentures attached / mounted to implants won't slip or shift in your mouth.
- Helps to plan a fixed denture for old age when the implants are placed at an early age.
- Helps avoid the complications of doing implant in old age (diabetics, hypertension, bisphosphonates, thyroidism, etc) if implant are planned at an early age.
- Helps avoid loose dentures.
To receive implants, you need to have healthy gums and adequate bone to support the implant. You must also commit to keeping these structures healthy. Meticulous oral hygiene and regular dental visits are critical to the long-term success of dental implants.

Smile Makeover / Smile Designing

A smile makeover is the process of improving the appearance of the smile through one or more cosmetic dentistry procedures, such as dental veneers, composite bonding, tooth implants, teeth whitening, teeth lengthening, depigmentation of gums (gums look more light pink in color), etc. A smile makeover takes into consideration your facial appearance, skin tone, hair color, teeth (color, width, length, shape and tooth display), gum tissue and lips to develop your ideal smile. Smile makeovers are performed for many reasons and customized according to your unique considerations. It considers several factors such as :
Tooth Color :
Silver or amalgam dental fillings can be replaced with natural, tooth-colored composite restorations, while teeth whitening can improve the color of stained or dulled teeth.
Alignment and Spacing :
Teeth that are crooked, overlapping or have gaps between them can be straightened and aligned when necessary through orthodontics or Invisalign and improved with crowns, laminates, veneers, etc.
Missing Teeth :
One or more missing teeth can negatively affect the appearance of your smile – as well as affect your bite. Missing teeth can be replaced by dental implants, bridges or partial dentures.
Harmony and Balance :
Uneven, chipped and cracked teeth can be cosmetically bonded for an improved appearance, and a gummy smile can be re-contoured to help improve the overall look of the smile.
Fuller Lips, Smile and Cheeks :
An unshapely or aging face can be improved or d by replacing the lost teeth, recontouring the malaligned teeth, etc.

Full Mouth Rehabilitation

Full mouth reconstruction, full mouth rehabilitation and full mouth restoration are terms often used interchangeably to describe the process of rebuilding or simultaneously restoring all of the teeth in both the upper and lower jaws to help reconstruct a stable bite & also provide excellent esthetics
The need for full mouth reconstruction may result from :
- Teeth that have been lost due to decay or trauma.
- Teeth that have been injured or fractured.
- Teeth that have become severely worn as a result of long-term acid erosion (foods, beverages, acid reflux) or tooth grinding.
- Ongoing complaints of jaw, muscle and headache pain requiring adjustments to the bite (occlusion).
- Collapsed bite due to loss of teeth & attrition of teeth.

Most full mouth reconstructions involve multiple phases and office visits. It takes at an average from 3 months to 1 year to complete the treatment depending on case severity & type of treatment provided.
The following procedures may be involved, depending on your needs :-
- Prophylactic teeth cleaning and periodontal care.
- Orthognathic surgery to reposition the jaw.
- Orthodontics (braces) in order to move your teeth into the optimal position for reconstruction.
- Temporomandibular Joint Disorder rehabilitation using splint therapy.
- Implant placement and restoration to replace missing teeth and/or anchor bridge restoration.
- Bone or soft tissue grafting to enhance the stability of your teeth, proposed implants and/or other restorations.
- Root canal therapy for severely worn of teeth & grossly decayed teeth.
- Crown lengthening to expose healthy, sound tooth structure for short crowns or bridges.
- Contouring of the gum tissue to create balance and harmony in your smile.
- Preparation (reduction) of your natural tooth structure so that crowns, bridges or veneers can be placed.
- Placement of temporary restorations so you can become accustomed to your new teeth and the feel of your new mouth or bite alignment.
- Placement of permanent restorations, such as crowns, veneers, inlays/onlays or bridges, made from ceramic, ceramic supported by metal or a combination of both.

Pre Treatment:

Post Treatment:

Obturators & Mandibular Guidance Prosthesis

Maxillary defects are created by surgical treatment of benign or malignant neoplasms, congenital malformation and by trauma. The size and location of the defects influence the degree of impairment and difficulty in prosthetic rehabilitation.Lack of support, retention, and stability are common prosthodontic treatment problems for patients who have had a maxillectomy. A prosthesis used to close a palatal defect in a dentate or edentulous mouth is referred to as an obturator.The obturator prosthesis is used to restore masticatory function and improve speech, deglutition and cosmetics for maxillary defect patients.
The opening produced may be quite small or it may include any portion of the hard and soft palate, the alveolar ridges, and the ¯oor of the nasal cavity. In the total rehabilitation of the maxillectomy patient, the maxillofacial-prosthodontist has two primary objectives:
- to restore the functions of mastication, deglutition, and speech and
- to achieve normal oro-facial appearance.
The prostheses needed to repair the defect is termed as a maxillary obturator. An obturator (Latin: obturare, to stop up) is a disc or plate, natural or artificial, which closes an opening or defect of the maxilla as a result of a cleft palate or partial or total removal of the maxilla for a tumour mass (Chalian et al., 1971). The goals of prosthetic rehabilitation for total and partial maxillectomy patients include separation of oral and nasal cavities to allow adequate deglutition and articulation, possible support of the orbital contents to prevent enophthalmos and diplopia, support of the soft tissue to restore the midfacial contour, and an acceptable aesthetic results.
The obturator fulfills many functions:
± for feeding purposes
± it may be used to keep the wound or defective area clean, and may enhance the healing of traumatic or post-surgical defects;
± it may help to reshape and reconstruct the palatal contour and/or soft palate
± it improves speech or, in some instances makes speech possible
± in the important area of esthetics, the obturator can be used to correct lip and cheek contour
± it can benefit the morale of patients with maxillary defects
± when deglutition and mastication are impaired, it can be used to improve function
± it reduces the ¯ow of exudates into the mouth
± the obturator may be used as a stent to hold dressings or packs post-surgically in maxillary resections. It reduces the possibility of post-operative haemorrhage, and maintains pressure either directly or indirectly on split-thickness skin grafts, thus causing close adaptation of the graft to the wound which prevents the formation of a haematoma and ultimate failure of the graft

The unilateral loss of mandibular continuity due to surgery or trauma results in mandibular deviation towards the defect side resulting in loss of occlusion on the unresectedside.Mandibular resections also result in impaired speech articulation, difficulty in swallowing, mandibular deviation, poor control of salivary secretions, and severe facial disfigurement.One of the primary goals of treatment is the restoration of acceptable occlusalfunction. .Residual dentition can be used to confirm proper realignment of the mandibular fragments in dentate patients.This can be achieved by the use of various guidance prosthesis The guidance prosthesis can effectively retrain the mandible after partial mandibulectomy procedures to achieve a functional occlusal relationship thereby facilitating early progression to a nearly perfect functioning permanent restoration.This paper presents an overview of the various mandibular guidance prosthesis that can be used to correct mandibular deviation following partial mandibulectomy

Discontinuity of the mandible after surgical resection or trauma destroys the balance and symmetry of mandibular function, which leads to altered mandibular movements and deviation of the residual segment towards the defect side ,resulting in loss of occlusion on the unresected side.
The degree of deviation is dependent on several factors which include the location and extent of osseous and soft tissue resection, the method of surgical site closure, degree of impaired tongue function, the presence and condition of the remaining natural teeth, the degree to which innervation has been involved, the use of adjunctive procedures like radiation therapy and the timing of prosthodontics treatment. Loss of mandibular continuity also causes rotation of mandibular occlusal plane inferiorly on the defect side. The pull of the suprahyoid muscles on the residual mandibular fragment causes inferior displacement and rotation around the fulcrum of the remaining condyle thus giving the tendency to an anterior open bite. The other debilitating consequences following resection are impaired speech articulation, difficulty in swallowing, poor control of salivary secretions, and severe cosmetic disfigurement.

Maxillofacial Prosthesis
Composite Restorations / Fillings
Denture Repair
Precision Attachments
Root Canal Therapy
Oral Prophylaxis (Scaling / Cleaning)
Oral Prophylaxis (Scaling / Cleaning) Bleaching

COSMETIC TEETH WHITENING GIVES NEW LIFE TO A STAINED, DULL SMILE…Over time teeth discolor from frequent use of cola drinks, food, medicine, wine, and coffee—to name a few. Daily activities such as eating, talking, laughing, and smiling constantly showcase your teeth. Your smile communicates a lot about you to others, and a clean white smile can increase your confidence, catch attention, and improve the impression you make on the people around you.

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